In the field of public health, risk reduction is an approach used to address and reduce the risks factors facing an individual, a family, a group, or a community through counseling, education, and promotional activities.
HIV education and risk-reduction counseling is provided through various HIV testing programs. HIV/AIDS education presentations to small groups can be coordinated through Paul Lovely, our Treatment Advocate.
Contact HIV Prevention Staff
C.A.R.E. Prevention & Education Staff
The information being provided here is very general and limited, please visit the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for more authoritative and up-to-date information (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/default.htm).
One of the best ways to prevent HIV infection is to ensure that one does not become exposed to any of the human body fluids known to transmit HIV (e.g. blood, semen, pre-cum, vaginal fluids, and the breast milk of infected mothers). With respect to sex, the safest way to prevent HIV infection is to remain completely abstinent from sexual intercourse.
For those individuals who are sexually active, most sexual activities carry some level of risk to HIV exposure. In order to practice safer sexual activities, one must always assume that the other individual is HIV positive. Sexual activities that expose an individual to the body fluids of others are considered risky and unsafe. One of the most effective ways of preventing HIV exposure to body fluids during sexual intercourse is through the effective use of a condom. Information on condom effectiveness may be found at: (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/treatment/PIC/pdf/chart.pdf).
HIV and Hepatitis can also be transmitted by sharing needles with someone who is already infected with HIV and/or Hepatitis. People who use syringes to inject substances should make sure to always use clean needles, and never share their needles with others. For more information on needle exposure, needle sale and exchange policies, and other related issues please visit:
HIV InSite – UCSF:
LA County Syringe Exchange Program:
Drug Policy Alliance:
“Universal precautions” is a term used in the health care field that utilizes specific guidelines on how to handle, manage, and prevent exposure from pathogens found in a patient’s blood, body fluids, tissues, air, and other sources.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines “universal precautions as a set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens when providing first aid or health care. Under universal precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious of HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens”. For more information on universal precautions please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website: http://www.cdc.gov/hai